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To combat teens' sleep deprivation, California schools must start their days later

Experts say more sleep will improve students' health, academic and athletic performance

Students walk around campus on the second day of school at Palo Alto High School on Aug. 11, 2022. Photo by Jonas Pao.

Carol Maheras isn't going to miss the early morning scramble to get her twins to school.

Zoe and Theodoros, both rising seniors at TIDE Academy, a small public high school in Menlo Park, had classes at 8 a.m. this past school year, which meant starting their day before 6 a.m. Like many families at TIDE, which draws students from throughout the Sequoia Union High School District, Maheras and her kids don't live in the immediate vicinity of the school.

"It meant getting up at 5:45 to leave the house at 6:50 for a 7:05 bus," she said.

The lengthy bus ride followed by more than seven hours of school added up to a really long day, she said. Rousing her kids to get up on time was sometimes impossible, and in an effort to shorten the commute, she and her husband decided early on in the school year to start driving them.

Still, she said, her son was often late for class.

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"The thing is, if the kids have to start earlier, they're not going to adjust their nighttime because of that," Maheras said. "What happens is they sleep less, they're more irritable, they're more tired, they're more stressed."

A new state law is about to change things for Maheras and her kids. Beginning this coming school year, California high schools aren't allowed to start earlier than 8:30 a.m. Middle schools must begin at 8 a.m. or later. Maheras said she is emphatically in favor of the change.

'The thing is, if the kids have to start earlier, they're not going to adjust their nighttime because of that.'

-Carol Maheras, parent of rising seniors at TIDE Academy

The California legislature passed the bill requiring later start times in 2019, with the rules taking effect on July 1, 2022. A major part of the reasoning behind the law was research showing that teenagers suffer from sleep deprivation and that later school start times can make a positive difference.

According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an analysis of survey data from 2015 showed that over 70% of high school students were not getting enough sleep on school nights. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that middle and high schools start no earlier than 8:30 a.m., citing research showing that teenagers generally need 8.5 to 9.5 hours of sleep per night.

When schools start later, studies have shown that adolescents get more sleep, leading to better daytime functioning, a decrease in behavioral issues, fewer absences and tardies, and improved mental health, among other benefits, Professor of Psychology Amy Wolfson of Loyola University Maryland said in an interview with this news organization.

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Wolfson — whose research focuses on adolescent sleep health and is one of the coauthors of the American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement on school start times — strongly supports the new California law.

"It's phenomenal, and I think California is showing tremendous adolescent public-health leadership for the country," Wolfson said.

In anticipation of the new law, many local school districts have already shifted to later start times, including the Palo Alto Unified and Mountain View Los Altos Union High school districts. Other schools will be making the move for the first time this fall, including Woodside High School.

Students follow the teacher to the library on the first day of school at the Woodside High School on Aug. 17, 2016. Photo by Natalia Nazarova.

Among those that already made the change, some are considering whether to make further tweaks. Palo Alto Unified Superintendent Don Austin announced the formation of a committee to review bell schedules this coming school year after the district pushed high school start times to 9 a.m. during the pandemic and kept it in place last school year. Previously, first period had started at 8:30 a.m. at Palo Alto High School and 8:25 a.m. at Gunn High School. The committee, whose goal is to make a recommendation this year, will explore whether another schedule could serve the district better and may look at the possibility of starting classes at 8:30 a.m. or 8:45 a.m.

While sleep experts are generally in support of pushing back start times, the logistics of actually doing it are complex and can lead to complications for things like athletic schedules, extracurricular activities and the morning drop-off routine for working families. One of the main challenges is that starting later means ending the day later.

"There are people who love it and people who hate it, as with anything," Palo Alto Unified's Director of Secondary Education Kathleen Laurence said of starting school at 9 a.m. "Overall, the kids like coming later — what they don't like is getting out at 4:10 on some days."

The benefits of starting later

Junior Carter Scoville works in a computer science class at TIDE Academy in Menlo Park on Oct. 27, 2021. Photo by Magali Gauthier.

According to Wolfson, the research supporting moving back school start times is clear cut. She listed wide-ranging benefits, including fewer automobile accidents because teen drivers are better rested and evidence of improvements to students' immune systems.

Part of why starting classes later is effective is because kids experience what is known as a circadian "phase delay" in early adolescence, Wolfson said, which means they can't fall asleep until later in the evening, compared with their younger siblings and peers, despite still needing 8.5-9.5 hours of sleep each night.

"By delaying the timing of school ... it aligns their school schedule with their biological clock," Wolfson said.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that middle and high schools start at 8:30 a.m. or later because it was the earliest time researchers believed students could attend classes while also getting a healthy amount of sleep, Wolfson said, adding that many experts think 9 a.m. might actually be preferable.

A common concern is that if kids can wake up later, they'll just fall asleep commensurately later, but Wolfson said that studies have found that generally isn't true. The American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement includes descriptions of a number of studies showing that teens, on average, sleep longer when school starts later.

Chuck Velschow, Woodside High's administrative vice principal, saw firsthand the challenge of getting students to school on time at 8 a.m. when he was a teacher with a first period class.

"Do you give the detention you're supposed to receive after three tardies?" he said. "How do you compare a student who is 30 seconds late versus 10 minutes?"

Velschow pointed out that it can be difficult to get to school at 8 a.m., especially for families that have several children.

Woodside High will begin later for the first time this coming school year, with half of students starting at 8:30 a.m. and most of the remaining students beginning at 9:30 a.m. Seventh period will let out at 3:40 p.m.

School staff decided to keep things simple for the first year of later start times by just pushing back schedules by half an hour, Velschow said. Administrators surveyed families and teachers last school year about the change and plan to create a bell schedule committee this school year to review the new schedule, Velschow said.

"Kids seem to be happier they'll have a little bit later start to the day," he said, noting it should make mornings less hectic for families.

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The Mountain View Los Altos Union High School District began school at 8:40 a.m. last school year, a 30-minute shift from the 8:10 a.m. start time that the district had before the pandemic.

The district is keeping the later start time this fall.

According to Associate Superintendent of Educational Services Teri Faught, the district chose 8:40 a.m. as the middle ground between the research supporting 9 a.m. and the reality of balancing the needs of after school activities. With the shift later, the district also eliminated a zero period, which used to start at 7:15 a.m. or 7:20 a.m., depending on the day. (Read more in "The controversial zero period.) According to Faught, the feedback on the later start from students has been largely positive.

"They felt more awake. They felt like they got a better night's sleep," Faught said. "They felt rested, not like they were dragging their feet to come to school."

The Mountain View Whisman School District moved its middle school bell schedules roughly 30 minutes later last school year so that both Crittenden and Graham middle schools now start at 8:25 a.m. Spokesperson Shelly Hausman said that the district hasn't seen any large impacts from the change, other than students being "a little more awake and lively in the mornings."

The impact on sports

Swimmers warm up before a virtual meet at Gunn High School in Palo Alto on Feb. 24, 2021. Photo by Magali Gauthier.

While studies show teens generally fall asleep and wake up later, Laurence noted that isn't a universal experience. Some kids are early risers, and for them, later start times have been a mixed bag.

Incoming Palo Alto High School senior Elizabeth Fetter is one who gets up early. In some ways, starting later has its benefits, Fetter said. Last year she would sometimes go on group bicycle rides from 6-8 a.m., which wouldn't have been possible when school started before 8:30 a.m.

However, the flip side of starting later is finishing school later, which Fetter said caused substantial problems for her athletic schedule. Seventh period at Paly ends as late as 4:10 p.m., depending on the day of the week, which meant her outdoor cross-country practices in the fall would often start after the sun had set.

"With the sun going down, it makes me feel like I just want to go to sleep, but I know my day is almost just starting," Fetter said, noting that after school ends she still has to attend sports practices and then go home to finish all of her homework.

'Overall, the kids like coming later — what they don't like is getting out at 4:10 on some days.'

-Kathleen Laurence, director of secondary education, Palo Alto Unified

Running off campus in the dark with her cross country team also felt somewhat dangerous, Fetter said, adding that she was concerned about the potential for athletes to get lost or injured.

The later end time also meant missing more class time for sports competitions.

"The sentiment among a lot of athletes is that it's really hard and really frustrating to miss so much class every week," Fetter said.

Laurence acknowledged the impact that ending class later has on outdoor sports that practice without lights. Sports games and meets cutting into more class time may be somewhat alleviated this coming year when all schools have to start later, Laurence said.

Sequoia High shifted to later start times 11 years ago and Athletic Director Melissa Schmidt has spent years pushing for later game times. Though she struggled when Sequoia was the only school starting at 8:30 a.m., she hopes that the new state law may change that.

"As a league, we've started having conversations about changing even more game times now that everyone is going to be getting out later," she said. "For some sports, it may not be possible due to constraints like availability of officials, lights, etc., but we're hopeful we can change many."

Schmidt was the girls soccer coach in 2011 and distinctly remembers the shift from 8 a.m.

"The change was definitely a concern for athletics ... and the impact on us was huge. At the time, we only had one field with lights, so all four soccer teams were going to lose a lot of practice time," she wrote in an email. "For other sports, there was also an adjustment to simply being at school later each day — family dinner times had to shift, etc."

Schmidt described Sequoia's teachers as "very accommodating" of the athletes' schedule needs and said that a newly instituted flex period has helped make up lost time. Though the current schedule seems to be working, she said it takes a lot of work from both staff and students.

"I don't think there's a 'perfect' solution," she added.

Woodside High School cheer members hold a pose during practice while a flock of geese flies overhead in Woodside on Dec. 10, 2020. Photo by Olivia Treynor.

When it comes to Woodside High, Velschow said the board of managers that governs the Peninsula Athletic League (PAL), a 17-member school league that is made up of administrators from Peninsula high schools, voted in March to maintain some game times for this upcoming year. PAL Commissioner Terry Stogner said the league did move several events to 4:30 p.m. if they're indoors or if there are field lights. Tennis already had a 4 p.m. start time. Some sports like girls golf can't start late because they'd go too late into the evening.

"We realize the thinking behind moving the school day back and we'll move it along as best we can," he said.

Some schools have seen a more limited impact on sports from moving start times later.

At Menlo-Atherton High, seventh period will end at 3:45 p.m. this fall, but only roughly 20% of students take seven periods, Principal Karl Losekoot said, adding that of those, only a small percentage play sports.

"There are concerns, but we've reassured them they should be able to play," he said. "Any time you miss a class for a game, that's an excused absence. You have access to that content and curriculum and homework."

'By delaying the timing of school ... it aligns their school schedule with their biological clock.'

-Amy Wolfson, professor of psychology, Loyola University Maryland

Late start times also have potential benefits for athletes. Wolfson noted that some studies have shown improved athletic performance when school starts later.

"Tired athletes are not going to be very competitive," Wolfson said.

Sequoia High junior Jackson Bae, who runs on both the cross-country and track teams, experienced that tiredness firsthand last school year. Twelve-hour days became the norm for him when he was assigned a zero period starting at 7:30 a.m. Although he got out of school around 2:45 p.m., he still had to wait on campus for his two-hour sports practice to start every day. As a result, he rarely got the sleep he needed to be on top of his game

"My coach says I need to get nine to 10 hours of sleep a night," said Bae, who runs upwards of 8 miles a day. "And if I'm waking up at 6:30 a.m., that means I have to get to bed between 9:30 and 10:30."

Bae struggled to squeeze in dinner, homework and everything else in the hours remaining before bedtime. And, like many teenagers, he found his mind still racing late into the night.

"It doesn't feel natural to me to be getting in bed at 9:30 or 10," he said. "A lot of times, I lie in bed and I just can't sleep for an hour."

The lack of sleep impacted both his academic and athletic performance, he added.

"I had a lot of tardies for my zero period. I had to get extensions on some homework, and I did not get the sleep that I should have gotten, which led to some injuries," Bae said.

Bae said if he's scheduled for another zero period this fall, he will petition the school to change it.

The transportation challenge for working families

A crossing guard helps children make their way across East Meadow Drive to JLS Middle School on their first day of school on Aug. 11, 2021. Photo by Adam Pardee.

For some working parents, the later bell times can present a logistical challenge. Brizeida Soto, a mother of two, lives in North Fair Oaks and works as a full-time nanny. Without an easily accessible bus, Soto has to drive her kids to Sequoia High and Clifford Elementary in Redwood City.

Hypothetically, Soto said, later start times allow students to get more sleep, but that isn't how it works for her family. Even though Sequoia's classes don't start until 8:30 a.m., she still has to drop her son off by 8 a.m. in order to get to work on time.

"Right now we get up at 6:50, and we leave the house at 7:30," she said. "So I don't think it makes a difference when they start."

To support the later start times, she said she'd like to see more support — such as better bus or carpool infrastructure — for working parents like herself.

"Those moms, they need to go to work every day," she said.

Some schools have tried to put resources in place to support kids who have to be dropped off early. At Mountain View and Los Altos high schools, the school library is open by 8 a.m.

At La Entrada Middle School in Menlo Park, which made the shift to later start times in 2019, children who are dropped off early can take advantage of a homework center, which opens around 8:10 a.m., Principal Mark Jones said.

Ending school later in the afternoon can also impact teachers who have long commutes and have to leave school closer to rush hour, Laurence said.

Eighth graders Sarah, left, Louisa, center, and Lily, right, work in class at La Entrada Middle School in Menlo Park on March 24, 2022. Photo by Magali Gauthier.

Edith Salvatore, president of the Sequoia District Teachers Association and a math teacher at Sequoia High, said many employees in her district shared this worry.

"There's definitely concern among commuting teachers that the later start time means a later end time, which means you're going to get stuck in commute traffic," she said.

Daily commutes vary among Sequoia's teachers, some of whom live nearby while others come from as far away as Tracy and Fairfield, according to Salvatore, who drives down from San Francisco every day.

"We had an administrator who lived south of San Jose, and she got an apartment in the school district area because the commute was too much," she said.

But that's not always an option for lower paid teachers and other district employees, Salvatore said.

'There's definitely concern among commuting teachers that the later start time means a later end time, which means you're going to get stuck in commute traffic.'

-Edith Salvatore, president, Sequoia District Teachers Association

For some teachers though, the benefits still outweigh the costs. Slightly later start times haven't been controversial among educators at Summit charter schools, according to Justin Kim, an eighth grade history teacher in El Cerrito and union president for United Summit.

Summit operates seven charter schools throughout the Bay Area, including two in Redwood City. This fall, Summit's first block will start at 8:30 a.m., just 10 minutes later than last year.

"Students are just generally more alert, and there's more participation and more engagement later in the day," he said. "So I enjoy the latest starting time from a teaching standpoint."

That said, he wondered if narrowing the window of start times for all local schools might cause more congestion on the road.

"If more schools are starting around the same time that we are ... it could worsen traffic," he said.

At Menlo-Atherton, where students will all be starting classes at the same time in the fall, administrators are expecting more traffic congestion in the morning. They are encouraging students to bike or carpool as much as possible, Principal Karl Losekoot said.

Concerns about a one-size-fits-all approach

Students head to their second class of the day during their passing period on their first day back at school at Mountain View High School in Mountain View on Aug. 10, 2022. Photo by Adam Pardee.

The California School Boards Association opposed a statewide mandate for later start times because its members felt that it failed to account for the varied populations of students throughout the state, said Troy Flint, the organization's chief information officer.

"Studies suggest significant benefits (of later start times) for students, which is why we aren't opposed to the idea in concept," he said. "We thought the decision should be made with local knowledge though."

Since the bill's passage in 2019, the group has focused on supporting school districts shifting to later start times. It sponsored Assembly Bill 2933 to increase the funding for public school transportation, which the group believes school districts will need with the later start times. For example, some districts with limited numbers of buses will stagger schools' start times in order to use the same buses to transport students.

If all students are starting at the same time, though, districts may need to spend extra money on more buses, Flint said.

While Wolfson acknowledged issues around transportation, athletics and other after-school activities, she said that, in the end, making sure teens are well-rested has to take priority.

"(These are) all important issues, but ultimately students can't do any of these things without getting sufficient sleep," she said.

Backpacks stewn in a hallway at Ellen Fletcher Middle School in Palo Alto on Nov. 17, 2021. Photo by Magali Gauthier.

Zoe Morgan is a staff writer for the Palo Alto Weekly and Mountain View Voice. Angela Swartz is a staff writer for The Almanac. Leah Worthington is a staff writer for the Redwood City Pulse.

Follow Palo Alto Online and the Palo Alto Weekly on Twitter @paloaltoweekly, Facebook and on Instagram @paloaltoonline for breaking news, local events, photos, videos and more.

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To combat teens' sleep deprivation, California schools must start their days later

Experts say more sleep will improve students' health, academic and athletic performance

by Zoe Morgan, Leah Worthington and Angela Swartz / Embarcadero Media

Uploaded: Fri, Aug 12, 2022, 6:58 am

Carol Maheras isn't going to miss the early morning scramble to get her twins to school.

Zoe and Theodoros, both rising seniors at TIDE Academy, a small public high school in Menlo Park, had classes at 8 a.m. this past school year, which meant starting their day before 6 a.m. Like many families at TIDE, which draws students from throughout the Sequoia Union High School District, Maheras and her kids don't live in the immediate vicinity of the school.

"It meant getting up at 5:45 to leave the house at 6:50 for a 7:05 bus," she said.

The lengthy bus ride followed by more than seven hours of school added up to a really long day, she said. Rousing her kids to get up on time was sometimes impossible, and in an effort to shorten the commute, she and her husband decided early on in the school year to start driving them.

Still, she said, her son was often late for class.

"The thing is, if the kids have to start earlier, they're not going to adjust their nighttime because of that," Maheras said. "What happens is they sleep less, they're more irritable, they're more tired, they're more stressed."

A new state law is about to change things for Maheras and her kids. Beginning this coming school year, California high schools aren't allowed to start earlier than 8:30 a.m. Middle schools must begin at 8 a.m. or later. Maheras said she is emphatically in favor of the change.

The California legislature passed the bill requiring later start times in 2019, with the rules taking effect on July 1, 2022. A major part of the reasoning behind the law was research showing that teenagers suffer from sleep deprivation and that later school start times can make a positive difference.

According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an analysis of survey data from 2015 showed that over 70% of high school students were not getting enough sleep on school nights. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that middle and high schools start no earlier than 8:30 a.m., citing research showing that teenagers generally need 8.5 to 9.5 hours of sleep per night.

When schools start later, studies have shown that adolescents get more sleep, leading to better daytime functioning, a decrease in behavioral issues, fewer absences and tardies, and improved mental health, among other benefits, Professor of Psychology Amy Wolfson of Loyola University Maryland said in an interview with this news organization.

Wolfson — whose research focuses on adolescent sleep health and is one of the coauthors of the American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement on school start times — strongly supports the new California law.

"It's phenomenal, and I think California is showing tremendous adolescent public-health leadership for the country," Wolfson said.

In anticipation of the new law, many local school districts have already shifted to later start times, including the Palo Alto Unified and Mountain View Los Altos Union High school districts. Other schools will be making the move for the first time this fall, including Woodside High School.

Among those that already made the change, some are considering whether to make further tweaks. Palo Alto Unified Superintendent Don Austin announced the formation of a committee to review bell schedules this coming school year after the district pushed high school start times to 9 a.m. during the pandemic and kept it in place last school year. Previously, first period had started at 8:30 a.m. at Palo Alto High School and 8:25 a.m. at Gunn High School. The committee, whose goal is to make a recommendation this year, will explore whether another schedule could serve the district better and may look at the possibility of starting classes at 8:30 a.m. or 8:45 a.m.

While sleep experts are generally in support of pushing back start times, the logistics of actually doing it are complex and can lead to complications for things like athletic schedules, extracurricular activities and the morning drop-off routine for working families. One of the main challenges is that starting later means ending the day later.

"There are people who love it and people who hate it, as with anything," Palo Alto Unified's Director of Secondary Education Kathleen Laurence said of starting school at 9 a.m. "Overall, the kids like coming later — what they don't like is getting out at 4:10 on some days."

The benefits of starting later

According to Wolfson, the research supporting moving back school start times is clear cut. She listed wide-ranging benefits, including fewer automobile accidents because teen drivers are better rested and evidence of improvements to students' immune systems.

Part of why starting classes later is effective is because kids experience what is known as a circadian "phase delay" in early adolescence, Wolfson said, which means they can't fall asleep until later in the evening, compared with their younger siblings and peers, despite still needing 8.5-9.5 hours of sleep each night.

"By delaying the timing of school ... it aligns their school schedule with their biological clock," Wolfson said.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that middle and high schools start at 8:30 a.m. or later because it was the earliest time researchers believed students could attend classes while also getting a healthy amount of sleep, Wolfson said, adding that many experts think 9 a.m. might actually be preferable.

A common concern is that if kids can wake up later, they'll just fall asleep commensurately later, but Wolfson said that studies have found that generally isn't true. The American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement includes descriptions of a number of studies showing that teens, on average, sleep longer when school starts later.

Chuck Velschow, Woodside High's administrative vice principal, saw firsthand the challenge of getting students to school on time at 8 a.m. when he was a teacher with a first period class.

"Do you give the detention you're supposed to receive after three tardies?" he said. "How do you compare a student who is 30 seconds late versus 10 minutes?"

Velschow pointed out that it can be difficult to get to school at 8 a.m., especially for families that have several children.

Woodside High will begin later for the first time this coming school year, with half of students starting at 8:30 a.m. and most of the remaining students beginning at 9:30 a.m. Seventh period will let out at 3:40 p.m.

School staff decided to keep things simple for the first year of later start times by just pushing back schedules by half an hour, Velschow said. Administrators surveyed families and teachers last school year about the change and plan to create a bell schedule committee this school year to review the new schedule, Velschow said.

"Kids seem to be happier they'll have a little bit later start to the day," he said, noting it should make mornings less hectic for families.

The Mountain View Los Altos Union High School District began school at 8:40 a.m. last school year, a 30-minute shift from the 8:10 a.m. start time that the district had before the pandemic.

The district is keeping the later start time this fall.

According to Associate Superintendent of Educational Services Teri Faught, the district chose 8:40 a.m. as the middle ground between the research supporting 9 a.m. and the reality of balancing the needs of after school activities. With the shift later, the district also eliminated a zero period, which used to start at 7:15 a.m. or 7:20 a.m., depending on the day. (Read more in "The controversial zero period.) According to Faught, the feedback on the later start from students has been largely positive.

"They felt more awake. They felt like they got a better night's sleep," Faught said. "They felt rested, not like they were dragging their feet to come to school."

The Mountain View Whisman School District moved its middle school bell schedules roughly 30 minutes later last school year so that both Crittenden and Graham middle schools now start at 8:25 a.m. Spokesperson Shelly Hausman said that the district hasn't seen any large impacts from the change, other than students being "a little more awake and lively in the mornings."

The impact on sports

While studies show teens generally fall asleep and wake up later, Laurence noted that isn't a universal experience. Some kids are early risers, and for them, later start times have been a mixed bag.

Incoming Palo Alto High School senior Elizabeth Fetter is one who gets up early. In some ways, starting later has its benefits, Fetter said. Last year she would sometimes go on group bicycle rides from 6-8 a.m., which wouldn't have been possible when school started before 8:30 a.m.

However, the flip side of starting later is finishing school later, which Fetter said caused substantial problems for her athletic schedule. Seventh period at Paly ends as late as 4:10 p.m., depending on the day of the week, which meant her outdoor cross-country practices in the fall would often start after the sun had set.

"With the sun going down, it makes me feel like I just want to go to sleep, but I know my day is almost just starting," Fetter said, noting that after school ends she still has to attend sports practices and then go home to finish all of her homework.

Running off campus in the dark with her cross country team also felt somewhat dangerous, Fetter said, adding that she was concerned about the potential for athletes to get lost or injured.

The later end time also meant missing more class time for sports competitions.

"The sentiment among a lot of athletes is that it's really hard and really frustrating to miss so much class every week," Fetter said.

Laurence acknowledged the impact that ending class later has on outdoor sports that practice without lights. Sports games and meets cutting into more class time may be somewhat alleviated this coming year when all schools have to start later, Laurence said.

Sequoia High shifted to later start times 11 years ago and Athletic Director Melissa Schmidt has spent years pushing for later game times. Though she struggled when Sequoia was the only school starting at 8:30 a.m., she hopes that the new state law may change that.

"As a league, we've started having conversations about changing even more game times now that everyone is going to be getting out later," she said. "For some sports, it may not be possible due to constraints like availability of officials, lights, etc., but we're hopeful we can change many."

Schmidt was the girls soccer coach in 2011 and distinctly remembers the shift from 8 a.m.

"The change was definitely a concern for athletics ... and the impact on us was huge. At the time, we only had one field with lights, so all four soccer teams were going to lose a lot of practice time," she wrote in an email. "For other sports, there was also an adjustment to simply being at school later each day — family dinner times had to shift, etc."

Schmidt described Sequoia's teachers as "very accommodating" of the athletes' schedule needs and said that a newly instituted flex period has helped make up lost time. Though the current schedule seems to be working, she said it takes a lot of work from both staff and students.

"I don't think there's a 'perfect' solution," she added.

When it comes to Woodside High, Velschow said the board of managers that governs the Peninsula Athletic League (PAL), a 17-member school league that is made up of administrators from Peninsula high schools, voted in March to maintain some game times for this upcoming year. PAL Commissioner Terry Stogner said the league did move several events to 4:30 p.m. if they're indoors or if there are field lights. Tennis already had a 4 p.m. start time. Some sports like girls golf can't start late because they'd go too late into the evening.

"We realize the thinking behind moving the school day back and we'll move it along as best we can," he said.

Some schools have seen a more limited impact on sports from moving start times later.

At Menlo-Atherton High, seventh period will end at 3:45 p.m. this fall, but only roughly 20% of students take seven periods, Principal Karl Losekoot said, adding that of those, only a small percentage play sports.

"There are concerns, but we've reassured them they should be able to play," he said. "Any time you miss a class for a game, that's an excused absence. You have access to that content and curriculum and homework."

Late start times also have potential benefits for athletes. Wolfson noted that some studies have shown improved athletic performance when school starts later.

"Tired athletes are not going to be very competitive," Wolfson said.

Sequoia High junior Jackson Bae, who runs on both the cross-country and track teams, experienced that tiredness firsthand last school year. Twelve-hour days became the norm for him when he was assigned a zero period starting at 7:30 a.m. Although he got out of school around 2:45 p.m., he still had to wait on campus for his two-hour sports practice to start every day. As a result, he rarely got the sleep he needed to be on top of his game

"My coach says I need to get nine to 10 hours of sleep a night," said Bae, who runs upwards of 8 miles a day. "And if I'm waking up at 6:30 a.m., that means I have to get to bed between 9:30 and 10:30."

Bae struggled to squeeze in dinner, homework and everything else in the hours remaining before bedtime. And, like many teenagers, he found his mind still racing late into the night.

"It doesn't feel natural to me to be getting in bed at 9:30 or 10," he said. "A lot of times, I lie in bed and I just can't sleep for an hour."

The lack of sleep impacted both his academic and athletic performance, he added.

"I had a lot of tardies for my zero period. I had to get extensions on some homework, and I did not get the sleep that I should have gotten, which led to some injuries," Bae said.

Bae said if he's scheduled for another zero period this fall, he will petition the school to change it.

The transportation challenge for working families

For some working parents, the later bell times can present a logistical challenge. Brizeida Soto, a mother of two, lives in North Fair Oaks and works as a full-time nanny. Without an easily accessible bus, Soto has to drive her kids to Sequoia High and Clifford Elementary in Redwood City.

Hypothetically, Soto said, later start times allow students to get more sleep, but that isn't how it works for her family. Even though Sequoia's classes don't start until 8:30 a.m., she still has to drop her son off by 8 a.m. in order to get to work on time.

"Right now we get up at 6:50, and we leave the house at 7:30," she said. "So I don't think it makes a difference when they start."

To support the later start times, she said she'd like to see more support — such as better bus or carpool infrastructure — for working parents like herself.

"Those moms, they need to go to work every day," she said.

Some schools have tried to put resources in place to support kids who have to be dropped off early. At Mountain View and Los Altos high schools, the school library is open by 8 a.m.

At La Entrada Middle School in Menlo Park, which made the shift to later start times in 2019, children who are dropped off early can take advantage of a homework center, which opens around 8:10 a.m., Principal Mark Jones said.

Ending school later in the afternoon can also impact teachers who have long commutes and have to leave school closer to rush hour, Laurence said.

Edith Salvatore, president of the Sequoia District Teachers Association and a math teacher at Sequoia High, said many employees in her district shared this worry.

"There's definitely concern among commuting teachers that the later start time means a later end time, which means you're going to get stuck in commute traffic," she said.

Daily commutes vary among Sequoia's teachers, some of whom live nearby while others come from as far away as Tracy and Fairfield, according to Salvatore, who drives down from San Francisco every day.

"We had an administrator who lived south of San Jose, and she got an apartment in the school district area because the commute was too much," she said.

But that's not always an option for lower paid teachers and other district employees, Salvatore said.

For some teachers though, the benefits still outweigh the costs. Slightly later start times haven't been controversial among educators at Summit charter schools, according to Justin Kim, an eighth grade history teacher in El Cerrito and union president for United Summit.

Summit operates seven charter schools throughout the Bay Area, including two in Redwood City. This fall, Summit's first block will start at 8:30 a.m., just 10 minutes later than last year.

"Students are just generally more alert, and there's more participation and more engagement later in the day," he said. "So I enjoy the latest starting time from a teaching standpoint."

That said, he wondered if narrowing the window of start times for all local schools might cause more congestion on the road.

"If more schools are starting around the same time that we are ... it could worsen traffic," he said.

At Menlo-Atherton, where students will all be starting classes at the same time in the fall, administrators are expecting more traffic congestion in the morning. They are encouraging students to bike or carpool as much as possible, Principal Karl Losekoot said.

Concerns about a one-size-fits-all approach

The California School Boards Association opposed a statewide mandate for later start times because its members felt that it failed to account for the varied populations of students throughout the state, said Troy Flint, the organization's chief information officer.

"Studies suggest significant benefits (of later start times) for students, which is why we aren't opposed to the idea in concept," he said. "We thought the decision should be made with local knowledge though."

Since the bill's passage in 2019, the group has focused on supporting school districts shifting to later start times. It sponsored Assembly Bill 2933 to increase the funding for public school transportation, which the group believes school districts will need with the later start times. For example, some districts with limited numbers of buses will stagger schools' start times in order to use the same buses to transport students.

If all students are starting at the same time, though, districts may need to spend extra money on more buses, Flint said.

While Wolfson acknowledged issues around transportation, athletics and other after-school activities, she said that, in the end, making sure teens are well-rested has to take priority.

"(These are) all important issues, but ultimately students can't do any of these things without getting sufficient sleep," she said.

Zoe Morgan is a staff writer for the Palo Alto Weekly and Mountain View Voice. Angela Swartz is a staff writer for The Almanac. Leah Worthington is a staff writer for the Redwood City Pulse.

Comments

Bystander
Registered user
Another Palo Alto neighborhood
on Aug 12, 2022 at 12:56 pm
Bystander, Another Palo Alto neighborhood
Registered user
on Aug 12, 2022 at 12:56 pm

A couple of observations.

Will this encourage kids to go to bed later? Will it cause a difference in morning commute hours? Will kids have to be dropped off to before school centers due to the fact that their parents have to get to work?

I am asking these questions because the reality is very different. As a teen I just could not get up in the morning and it was nothing about what time I went to bed, but I had to run out the house often without breakfast so that I would not miss my ride. I carpooled with neighbors and the driver had to get to work by a certain time. If they had messed around with my school start time, it would have just been waiting outside the classroom door longer.


karlakk
Registered user
Old Palo Alto
on Aug 12, 2022 at 9:31 pm
karlakk, Old Palo Alto
Registered user
on Aug 12, 2022 at 9:31 pm

Not addressed is it is recommended kids are limited to 2 hours a day of screen time (not education related) but the average is 7 hours. Web Link


Jacob Zhao
Registered user
Another Palo Alto neighborhood
on Aug 13, 2022 at 7:56 am
Jacob Zhao, Another Palo Alto neighborhood
Registered user
on Aug 13, 2022 at 7:56 am

On weekdays, our school-aged children go to bed by 9pm and awake at 6am to prepare for another school day.

It is a schedule they are thoroughly adjusted to and comfortable with.

This sleep deprivation that people are speaking of stems from poor time management on the part of parents who are lax in discipline and their children who are distracted by other non-academic endeavors like spending too much time on their cellphones.


Missy Carter
Registered user
Midtown
on Aug 13, 2022 at 10:14 am
Missy Carter, Midtown
Registered user
on Aug 13, 2022 at 10:14 am

I wake up at 5:30 am every weekday morning and am at work by 7:30am...plenty of time to rise, shower, have some coffee and commute.

Are we training today's kids (aka the employees of the future) to go to bed late, incessantly dabble on TicTok, and then arrive at work during brunch hour?

As Mr. Zhao has implied, it is time to ditch and/or confiscate those iPhones and make better use of one's time.



Jason Billings
Registered user
Los Altos
on Aug 13, 2022 at 11:16 am
Jason Billings, Los Altos
Registered user
on Aug 13, 2022 at 11:16 am

Another consideration/factor...kids today are LAZY. Blame the parents who are probably disgruntled Baby Boomers resentful of spankings, chores, and curfews

When was the last time anyone saw a white middle class adolescent cutting the front lawn or working at a fast food joint?

There is too much 'entitlement' being ingrained by irresponsible parents who perhaps resented having to be at school by 8:00 am for 1st period classes.

Dump the cellphones. We never had them during the 1960s through 1980s.

This current preoccupation with social media is both inane and totally responsible for any 'sleep deprivation' concerns.


Justine Walters
Registered user
Old Palo Alto
on Aug 13, 2022 at 2:53 pm
Justine Walters, Old Palo Alto
Registered user
on Aug 13, 2022 at 2:53 pm
Bette Hargrove
Registered user
Old Palo Alto
on Aug 13, 2022 at 3:45 pm
Bette Hargrove, Old Palo Alto
Registered user
on Aug 13, 2022 at 3:45 pm

Yes...blame internet addiction for sleep deprivation and distraction from other more pertinent responsibilities.

When we were kids, there were no cellphones for talking, texting, and online excursions...just 10¢ pay phones.

And there was no cyber-bullying and shaming either. If someone wanted to badmouth another individual, they did it verbally and behind the other person's back.


Trevor Thompson
Registered user
Los Altos
on Aug 13, 2022 at 5:28 pm
Trevor Thompson, Los Altos
Registered user
on Aug 13, 2022 at 5:28 pm

"...kids today are LAZY."

^ Add self-entitled to the equation as well.

America of the future is screwed.


S. Underwood
Registered user
Crescent Park
on Aug 13, 2022 at 9:55 pm
S. Underwood, Crescent Park
Registered user
on Aug 13, 2022 at 9:55 pm

I feel this is moving around deck chairs. In 18 months we'll be seeing soccer practices and such at 8pm. (Some already are, but it will be more common.). The cell phones need to go, and parents need to learn about bedtime.


Amy
Registered user
Crescent Park
on Aug 13, 2022 at 10:40 pm
Amy , Crescent Park
Registered user
on Aug 13, 2022 at 10:40 pm

Mr Zhau
Teens with after school jobs getting out at 4:10 can only work a shift from 5-8. That would leave one hour for homework and dinner with your imposes 9pm bedtime. Your children clearly just come home to do homework and go to bed. Not realistic for most kids.


III
Registered user
Midtown
on Aug 14, 2022 at 8:53 am
III, Midtown
Registered user
on Aug 14, 2022 at 8:53 am

I could be wrong. But based on my experience, "kids" spend much too much time
evenings playing around on their tech gagets. I went to Paly, competed in sports
after school varsity level 2 different sports, I coached at Paly, been around kids past
40 yrs. Those with sleep concerns, were NOT RELATED to work, or late night studies.
Were related to interacting with technology games or communication with friends also up late.
I would agree, today, there is much more homework/school related work. But again,
8am to 3pm was school. Practice was 3:30pm to 5:30pm. Homework was 7pm-9pm
then to bed. We/I did that Paly, Foothill College, Cal Berkeley. And I found lots
of time summers, off season to have fun later in evenings. And I had summer jobs ALWAYS.
Parents need to step up to the plate with better technology control evenings, IMHO.
III


Marlon Williams
Registered user
Mountain View
on Aug 14, 2022 at 11:06 am
Marlon Williams, Mountain View
Registered user
on Aug 14, 2022 at 11:06 am

"Teens with after school jobs..."
^ In Palo Alto and Los Altos, very few teens have after school jobs.


Bobbie Jenkins
Registered user
Mountain View
on Aug 14, 2022 at 12:49 pm
Bobbie Jenkins, Mountain View
Registered user
on Aug 14, 2022 at 12:49 pm

Kids today do not know how to manage their time...too many distractions and time wasted on online gossip.

Take away their smartphones and they will have plenty of time for sleep, school, homework, and maybe even a few chores around the house.

This sleep deprivation nonsense is a relatively new phenomena being perpetrated by adolescent slackers.


William Hitchens
Registered user
Mountain View
on Aug 14, 2022 at 5:14 pm
William Hitchens, Mountain View
Registered user
on Aug 14, 2022 at 5:14 pm

This 8:30 school start will make life tougher for working parents. Aren't school hours set up to make it most viable for their working parents, who have to drop the kids up at about 7:45 AM to start to work at 8:30 AM??? The parents and the kids will need about 1 1/2 hours to bathe, dress, eat, and get out of the house at 7:30 AM, so this means that they'll still have to get up at about 6 AM. I believe that kids starting later is a good thing because I was late sleeper as a child. But if you want to make kids sleep longer in the morning, then it will be necessary to find a way to make their parents arrive at work later, and that will be a very tough nut to crack.

And in professions like construction, or medicine, or even teaching, it is necessary to be at work by 8 AM or earlier.


Jennifer
Registered user
another community
on Aug 14, 2022 at 8:38 pm
Jennifer, another community
Registered user
on Aug 14, 2022 at 8:38 pm

Goodness... whatever happened to a start time/ring the bell. This is over analyzing, and that's putting it mildly.

Getting your kids to school on time isn't any different than adults getting to work on time. You make the necessary changes, and you do it.

I agree with kids not having cell phones/smart phones. We never bought phones for our kids, and it's one of the wisest parental decisions we made.

I think it's sad that so many parents drive their kids to school. Walking/biking is healthier - as long as you use the buddy system. It's mentally and physically healthy, and it instills confidence in your child.


Eleanor Prescott
Registered user
Downtown North
on Aug 15, 2022 at 6:42 am
Eleanor Prescott, Downtown North
Registered user
on Aug 15, 2022 at 6:42 am

Would it be possible to incorporate to nap period during the school day like they do in kindergarten?

An afternoon siesta following lunch is a traditional part of Mexican culture and is said to have rejuvenating qualities.


Gerri Gaines
Registered user
Crescent Park
on Aug 15, 2022 at 9:40 am
Gerri Gaines, Crescent Park
Registered user
on Aug 15, 2022 at 9:40 am

Most of this 'sleep deprivation' is self-imposed because kids today are easily distracted by other trivial outlets like social media and online gossip mongering.

Having grown up on a small farm in Iowa...we went to bed by 9pm, woke up at 5:30am, completed a few chores by 6:30am, had breakfast, and then hopped on the yellow bus to school every weekday morning.

There was no time for exercising or promoting contemporary weenie excuses.

[Portion removed.]


Ron Harvey
Registered user
Los Altos
on Aug 15, 2022 at 11:22 am
Ron Harvey, Los Altos
Registered user
on Aug 15, 2022 at 11:22 am

"Another consideration/factor...kids today are LAZY."

"Most of this 'sleep deprivation' is self-imposed because kids today are easily distracted by other trivial outlets like social media and online gossip mongering."

Take away those iPhones and kids will have plenty of time for both school and sleep.

"Teens with after school jobs getting out at 4:10 can only work a shift from 5-8."

Seriously...how many upper middle class white kids have after school jobs?

My neighbors pay their high school-aged children $100.00/weekly in allowance in addition to fully subsidizing their 'creature comforts' (i.e. late model cars, smartphones, clothes, concert tickets, and outside dining).

Why should these kids even bother to address any responsibility when they've got it made?

Just sleep-in and complain about how cruel life is as did their older Millennial brethren.


Grew Up Here
Registered user
Another Palo Alto neighborhood
on Aug 15, 2022 at 12:02 pm
Grew Up Here, Another Palo Alto neighborhood
Registered user
on Aug 15, 2022 at 12:02 pm

Quit suggesting removing the mobile phones—that is not going to happen and is ridiculous to even suggest it. If it works for you, good, but it won't work for the general population. The Brady Bunch and Leave It to Beaver days of childhood are gone.

As far as the farm girl who woke up at 5:30 am, surely Iowa schools 30 years ago are not as rigorous as the academics in PAUSD.

I graduated from Paly in the 1980s and the curriculum was much easier, although I felt the teachers were superior too, which made it easier to learn.

I sent three kids through Paly in the last 12 years. It's not poor time management, research shows that teenagers' biological clocks are later in the night time so they cannot fall asleep as early. The 9:00 start time was a lifesaver for us. My students played Paly sports and there were no issues with the late ending times: Web Link So glad that Paly has resumed the 9:00 start time. In the past, it was an 8:20 start time and was more difficult. The earlier start time is beneficial to adults but not teens. Sleep deprivation leads to stress—the health of our children should be considered, especially being in a college-prep school district. Now if only tenure could be overruled. . . Principal Brent Kline cares about the students and is by far the best principal we have had in over a decade. Superintendent Austin is much better than the past few too.


Theo Lane
Registered user
Old Palo Alto
on Aug 15, 2022 at 2:07 pm
Theo Lane, Old Palo Alto
Registered user
on Aug 15, 2022 at 2:07 pm

"...surely Iowa schools 30 years ago are not as rigorous as the academics in PAUSD."

This depends on the degree and regional definition of academics.

Having also been raised in an agricultural environment, I was firmly grounded in agronomy, farm machinery/operation, plant genetics, organic chemistry, linear algebra, and animal husbandry by the time I graduated high school.

Not too many PAUSD high school graduates can say the same and I later completed a B.S. in Agricultural Engineering from UC Davis and an MBA from the Haas School of Business (UC Berkeley).

Like Ms. Gaines, I also got up early and had pre-breakfast chores. It's called discipline and assuming certain responsibilities...something that many kids today are sadly lacking, especially in the more affluent neighborhoods.


Jake Schoenfeld
Registered user
Stanford
on Aug 15, 2022 at 6:55 pm
Jake Schoenfeld, Stanford
Registered user
on Aug 15, 2022 at 6:55 pm

Sleep requirements are not etched in stone and can vary from individual to individual.

I enjoy stepping out nearly every evening and generally hit the hay after 2AM, waking up around 7AM for my first class at 8AM.

No biggie as the key is to stay loose (or lit) while keeping your priorities straight.


Ron Marsh
Registered user
Menlo Park
on Aug 15, 2022 at 7:24 pm
Ron Marsh, Menlo Park
Registered user
on Aug 15, 2022 at 7:24 pm

Many upper middle class WHITE kids today are too soft, too pampered, and living in a private universe comprised of minimal responsibilities and focus.

The future of America is doomed.


toransu
Registered user
Barron Park
on Aug 15, 2022 at 8:44 pm
toransu, Barron Park
Registered user
on Aug 15, 2022 at 8:44 pm

Good lord, some of you are really out of touch with what it's like to be young in this day and age (as you've made painfully obvious by your cringeworthy comments). I doubt the boomers here had to do a fraction of the work that a Millennial or Gen Z student has to do to even be considered for a university now.


Robyn Harris
Registered user
Duveneck/St. Francis
on Aug 16, 2022 at 7:14 am
Robyn Harris, Duveneck/St. Francis
Registered user
on Aug 16, 2022 at 7:14 am

@toransu...
Not every Millennial or Gen Z person needs to get into a college or university of their choice at first crack...start at a two-year JC and then transfer out.

The 4-year 'college experience' is far overated and like many aging boomers, countless future graduates will end up with low-paying jobs and nowhere careers especially if they focus their academic studies in the humanities.


Lucille McPheeters
Registered user
another community
on Aug 16, 2022 at 8:01 am
Lucille McPheeters, another community
Registered user
on Aug 16, 2022 at 8:01 am

What's the point of going to college purely for 'enlightenment' (and/or the parties) and then moving back home with one's parents?

At a roughly $60K cost per year at a private university (times 4-5 years), this money could probably be better spent depending on individual maturity levels.

We set aside $250K for our son's college education with the stipulation that he either work at a menial job first or join the military upon high school graduation.

He chose the menial job which will hopefully instill some appreciation and responsibility for what goes on in the real world.

Then again, it might also trigger some resentment which seems to be the trademark of the Millennial generation.


Miguel Torres
Registered user
another community
on Aug 16, 2022 at 8:27 am
Miguel Torres, another community
Registered user
on Aug 16, 2022 at 8:27 am

Some (but not all) Palo Alto residents are seemingly out of touch with the real world.

Sleep deprivation can easily be resolved by going to bed earlier and prioritizing one's daily responsibilities whether at school or at work.

Time management is important.


Horst Dietrich
Registered user
Los Altos
on Aug 16, 2022 at 10:08 am
Horst Dietrich, Los Altos
Registered user
on Aug 16, 2022 at 10:08 am

As Baby Boomer parents, many of us (with good intentions) have spoiled our children by trying to make life easier for them.

This in turn had created a generation of self-entitled, tragically irresponsible, and self-serving offspring who cannot even get through first period without falling asleep?


Bystander
Registered user
Another Palo Alto neighborhood
on Aug 16, 2022 at 2:33 pm
Bystander, Another Palo Alto neighborhood
Registered user
on Aug 16, 2022 at 2:33 pm

A better conversation might be how to get teens to have better sleeping habits.

Getting teens to bed at a reasonable time has been difficult for parents for decades. TV shows that went on too late used to the be main culprit. TV is no longer the draw to keep teens up long into the night, instead we can blame smaller screens and devices. But we can also look into such things as late night snacks, high caffeine drinks, poor light management and inability to switch off daytime stresses.

As with adults, we have to teach our children to wind down in the evening. Doing demanding homework assignments and then getting to bed is not going to produce productive sleep. Instead, a calm atmosphere, a dark room, easy conversation or entertainment, and the chance to stretch their bodies and muscles before bedtime, are methods used to induce slumber once the light is turned out and the body rolls over in preparation for sleep. This does not come naturally to teens or children. We have to teach them to prepare for bed physically and emotionally. Time to get back to how parents get their younger children prepared for bed, no scary bedtime stories and replace them with familiar favorites. The teen equivalents should be unearthed.


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