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By Cathy Kirkman

About this blog: This blog explores life in Palo Alto with our dogs, cats and other pets, as well as the urban wildlife around us, the title being a reference to Sharon Creech's lovely story, "Love That Dog." I grew up in Palo Alto surrounded by ...  (More)

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Marley and you: Some thoughts on walking your dog

Uploaded: Nov 21, 2013
This post is part of an occasional series that I'm calling "Marley and you," (in honor of the book and movie "Marley and Me" about the unruly retriever; check out John Grogan's web site if somehow you missed it).

Here I hope to explore how to make the most of our relationship with our dogs, on both a training and philosophical level. Now that the weather is turning, it is a wonderful time to stay active by exercising our dogs, when we otherwise might not feel like going outside on a cold and rainy day. In fact, for some dogs with heavy coats, this is the best time of the year for them, and in this weather, our dogs' enthusiasm for the walk can make all the difference. So let's discuss how we walk our dogs.

One of the most important aspects of life with your dog is walking together. So what's to know about walking a dog? It seems pretty basic, but actually it's highly revealing of what your relationship with your dog is like. The best place to start is by becoming more aware of what is going on with your dog walk. Take the time to observe how other people are walking their dogs, and you will become more attuned to your own practices, and more conscious of the dynamics going on with the other dogs that you encounter. An article in the current issue of Harvard Magazine called "The Power of Patience: Teaching Students the Value of Deceleration and Immersive Attention" talks about the benefits of deep observation, in the context of looking at paintings, and this approach seems useful and valid generally in our busy, distracted lives.

Now that you are thinking about what your and other people's dog walks look like, let's talk about a couple of general principles about life with our dogs.

First, dogs need structure and leadership, or if it is lacking, they will create their own way of doing things. There are different schools of thought on how to provide this guidance, which we will discuss in the future, such as the "positive reinforcement" model of behavioral conditioning and the "pack leader" or dominance model of calm-assertive energy. In my experience, positive reinforcement goes a long way, while at the same time you have to be aware of your body language and what vibe you project when you work with a dog. Without getting into it here, let me suggest that the key factor is gaining the trust and respect of your dog, so that your dog's attention will be focused on you as the center of his world.

Second, dogs derive fulfillment by serving us in the special ways that only dogs can. Simply put, they are happiest when they earn our praise by doing something useful for us. While sometimes we anthropomorphize and pamper them because we think it should make them happy, in fact we are mostly just indulging ourselves and doing them a bit of a disservice by not honoring them as canines. Dogs have lived with people as domesticated animals for around the last 15,000 years, and the special bond between dogs and people is deeply based upon their productive role as hunter, herder, guardian, scout, finder, helper, etc. Today, we still keep dogs even when we don't really need them to do a job for us (which is something to ponder in itself), so we can lose sight of this fundamental component of the human/canine social compact. See, e.g., the UCLA Institute for Society and Genetics 2011 Symposium on Dog/Human Co-Evolution.

Based on these principles, it should be apparent that how you walk your dog is an essential part of the leadership and purpose that you provide him. Hence, let me suggest a few things to consider about the dog walk:

1. Is my dog on a walk with me, or is he actually out on his own walk, with his own agenda?

If he's not walking by your side or following next to you, then from his perspective you're extraneous and he's on his own mission for the walk. Sometimes we think that we are being nice to our dog by letting him roam wherever the leash will allow, but actually we're abdicating our role and leaving him without purpose to develop bad habits like marking, crittering, etc. Instead, we could be developing and building upon the bond between us by walking together as a team. And if your dog is walking there by your side, you might as well teach him to heel and follow you when you change direction, and to sit when you stop. A good benchmark is the following: can I walk my dog by my side with no tension, such that I can hold the leash in the palm of my hand or in the circle of my fingers without him pulling it out? Before you know it, you will have a well-behaved dog who is quite proud of himself there beside you.

2. How does my dog relate to other dogs and people that we encounter on our walk?

If he is under your control and well socialized, he will generally be fine with meeting other dogs and people, as well as seeing them from afar. If he has issues with other dogs, this is something to work on once you start practicing how you do the walk. Unfortunately, often we avoid the walk or other dogs when there is a problem, so it becomes a vicious cycle. If instead we work on it with our dog, we can give him a distraction or new association (e.g., a mild correction or a treat incentive) to refocus him before his behavior starts to escalate around other dogs. This way he can learn to pass by another dog without getting excited, lunging or barking. Having your dog meet another dog is a bit more complicated, because it depends on whether your dog is in an aggressive mode or just overly eager and excited, and also what type of vibe the other dog is giving out on its end.

So try working on exposure and indifference to other dogs in order to ratchet your dog's excitement level down first. It takes practice, and it means you actually need to seek out repetitions with other dogs around, not avoid them, in order to make progress. Sometimes it can be embarrassing if our dog has a behavior issue (oh no, you're not perfect!), but you will find that if you get out there and actually let people know that you are working on your dog's excitement and intensity, you will get encouragement, support, and advice, nine times out of ten. Remember people are generally nice, and most people love dogs. And for the one person out of ten who is not sympathetic, perhaps they are in the wrong mood or just don't like imperfect dogs, so you learn to let that go and not deter you from your training work.

3. What tools and rules am I using to have a good walk?

With dogs, a good axiom is that what you allow you encourage, so you need to ask yourself what tools and rules will help you achieve your goals. For example, with a "flexi-leash," its design precludes you from providing any meaningful structure for your dog, since it's made to allow the dog out in front of you to roam around at his own initiative. You can make it shorter obviously, but usually it's not used that way. Often you will see small dogs on a flexi-leash, so it may not seem like an issue, but sometimes these dogs can exhibit behavioral issues that reflect the lack of structure in their lives, like aggressive or fearful barking that can actually upset other dogs. It's a training moment for the other dogs, but it's not good manners for the dog on the flexi-leash to set other dogs off. If you prefer the flexi-leash, at least be aware of how you are choosing to structure your relationship with your dog, and how this may impact your control of your dog at home or in other situations.

A better approach if you want to remake your walk is to use a six foot or shorter leash, such as what is called a "traffic lead" for taller dogs, with some kind of a "slip collar," "martingale collar," or a "gentle leader" halter, or a basic "flat collar" if you don't have any pulling. Try different tools and see what works best for you. In this way, you can control your dog and give him subtle guidance as to what you want from him. Your dog will be happy because he's getting praised, now that he knows what you want from him.

Harnesses are also popular these days, I think because they look stylish, but the issue with them is that are designed to leverage a dog's strength and freedom of movement when they're out in front of you. So that's ideal if they are doing a job for you like pulling a sled or a cart, or sniffing out a trail for search and rescue. But if you want to control them on a walk, this is probably not the best tool. If you think about it, how do we control larger animals like a horse, goat, or sheep? Not with a flexi-leash or a harness, but with headgear like a bridle or halter around the neck and face. The same goes for a dog -- the neck and face area is the most sensitive and thus the is the best way to communicate what you want from your dog in the most direct and subtle manner.

We have a couple of pet stores here in town, Pet Food Express on Middlefield at Charleston and Pet Food Depot on Portage over by Fry's. Also Pet Smart on Charleston in Mountain View by REI has a good selection. Why not try a few different training tools and see what works best for you? By the way, when we mention third-party products or web sites, we are not expressing or implying a commercial arrangement or endorsement relationship between us, nor do we receive any consideration for doing so. We retain our editorial independence and intend to keep it that way.

So what is your experience like in walking your dog, and what kind of dog do you have? Besides the walk, how else do you provide your dog with purpose and structure?

Also, if you work as a dog walker or trainer in our community, please send me an email with your contact info, as I would like to compile a list of local resources for a future blog post.
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Posted by new dog guardian, a resident of College Terrace,
on Nov 21, 2013 at 11:49 pm

I'm not sure I agree with you on #1. IMO, the walk is mostly for my dog (an adult I rescued a couple of months ago), not me. I don't have an agenda and would like to give my dog the opportunity to sniff and explore. I do redirect her at times, but usually I hold the leash loosely and let her lead. I've noticed that she is much more comfortable about urinating and, especially, defecating when on walks with me than with my husband, who tends to lead her where he wants to go.

Posted by Cathy Kirkman, a Palo Alto Online blogger,
on Nov 22, 2013 at 7:54 am

Cathy Kirkman is a registered user.

Hi new dog guardian,

Thanks for your comment. It's wonderful that you have rescued this dog! What I'm saying is that the walk is really about the dog when you are leading the walk by giving him purpose and structure. Right now with a new dog you are building your trust relationship, which is the most important thing. If you provide some structure, it will actually help him to know he is in a stable home where he can relax and become part of your household. So together with your husband you will want to come up with a consistent approach for him, and perhaps some training objectives to work on so he can use his intelligence.

Also, on the walk you will always want to let them pee and poop, but left to their own devices they will just sniff where other dogs have gone and mark territory. You can explore the territory together by training your dog at the same time, and that will pay dividends in the rest of your relationship. Scent theory is interesting, too. Your dog is walking through scent clouds all the time and doesn't need to stop at each tree in order to experience it. If you try walking in the street you can get a feel for that.

Posted by Scottie Zimmerman, a resident of Midtown,
on Nov 22, 2013 at 1:00 pm

I take my two chihuahuas to a nearby dog park (Hoover Park, on Cowper). They LOVE going to the DP. The walk from the car to the dog park entrance gate is a bit strenuous with one of them (Smiley). Eager to get to where the dogs are, he pulls hard and snorts loudly, appearing rather aggressive.... Obviously, I need to work on his leash manners. The thing is, no matter what else happens once he enters the DP (off leash), he immediately joins the "sniffing" circle of dogs that usually forms at the gate. Some of the owners seem worried that their dog might be too aggressive, and I tell them not to worry, that they'll work it out. Dogs of all sizes and ages seem quite happy to meet each other peacefully. Am I mistaken to be so confident?

Posted by Cathy Kirkman, a Palo Alto Online blogger,
on Nov 22, 2013 at 1:24 pm

Cathy Kirkman is a registered user.

HI Scottie,

Thanks for your comment, and I think there's always something that we can be working on with our dogs, so why not try focusing on your leash walk with Smiley? Consider it something fun to do and not a task, and he will enjoy the extra attention. I like to just pick something different to focus on every now and then, to keep things interesting and develop a well-rounded dog. In terms of the dog park, if the dogs are already in there interacting well with each other, I think you are right that it should be fine. Probably people are being polite and sensitive about their dogs not overwhelming a smaller dog. That said, if someone's not sure about their dog, you would want to keep a close eye on that together. The most important thing is to watch the dog park dynamics, just like we supervise our kids at the playground, and you can learn more about dog behaviors this way too!

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